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Historians Should Stay Out of Impeachment

Why was I so chagrined? A spasm of self-importance creates a terrible hangover. I have been alive many decades, and my memory is that no one, outside family members and close friends, has ever expressed the slightest interest in which presidential candidate got my vote, and I’m certain that no one had ever solicited that information from me in order to make his own decision on the subject. I should have taken this as a hint: No one cares whom I vote for.

Having taken a painful inventory of my own motives, I now know that people sign such ridiculous documents for a narrow set of reasons. As a scribbler of the third or fourth tier, far down the ranks in fame and income, I think I rather enjoyed seeing my name listed up there among writers who were genuinely accomplished and, not to put too fine a point on it, rich. I’d been invited to an A-list party! Worse, I wanted the world to know that I, too, despised Donald Trump as much as any other enlightened person. And I do—I despise Donald Trump. I want that to be clear. Have I mentioned this already? Cannot abide the man.

Anyway, it was an act equal parts self-aggrandizement and moral preening, and I’m not proud of it, and I wouldn’t mention it now except for a petition that crossed my line of sight the other day: “Historians’ Statement on the Impeachment of President Trump.” It appeared a few days before the House of Representatives went ahead and impeached Trump, and Nancy Pelosi even cited it in her own remarks on the House floor. Though impeachment is accomplished, the petition lives on, still collecting signatures. By now it has the endorsement of more than 1,500 people who identify themselves as historians, most of them professors of one rank or another, at universities of various reputation.

The thesis of the petition goes like this: “President Trump’s numerous and flagrant abuses of power are precisely what the Framers had in mind as grounds for impeaching and removing a president.”

When I first read the statement, I took that superfluous adverb, precisely, as a bad sign. No one knows precisely what the Framers had in mind when it comes to impeachable offenses, and if we did, we could be sure it didn’t involve transcontinental telephone calls, gaga theories about computer servers, Javelin anti-tank missiles, or the sovereign nation of Ukraine, none of which existed when the Framers were framing away. Trump’s abuses and the kinds of violations the Framers thought were impeachable may bear a general similarity, or fall into the same general category, but that’s a different matter. Precision, we see early on, is precisely what the historians are not after.

The sloppiness is important because the whole statement is supposed to be self-validating. It is a reflexive form of what logic-choppers call an argumentum ab auctoritate, or argument from authority. The idea is to prove a disputed claim by pointing out that some expert or other authority believes the claim to be true. It’s a bogus but very popular trick. Trump loves it, and uses it more adamantly the more outlandish his assertions get. The authority he cites most often is “everybody.” “Many, many dogs can be taught to play poker,” he will yell to reporters on the White House lawn, his hand slicing the air as a waiting helicopter whirrs away. “Everybody knows it.” The historians are not much more reassuring. Their authority for their statement is them.

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When Is an Officer Impeached? III

OK, just one more post—probably.

The U.S. Constitution gives to the House of Representatives the “sole Power of Impeachment.” But what exactly is this power to impeach and how and when is it exercised? In particular, is the “power of impeachment” the power to go into the Senate, level an accusation, and demand a trial? Or, is the “power of impeachment” the power to pass a resolution declaring that someone has committed high crimes and misdemeanors?

For over a hundred years, the U.S. House presumed the correct answer was the first one and oriented its practice to that. It drafted resolutions authorizing a member to go to the Senate and impeach someone. Since the early twentieth century, the House has behaved as if the second answer is correct, passing resolutions declaring officers to have been impeached. It did not matter much how the House impeached someone because the Senate did not start an impeachment trial until the House exhibited articles of impeachment in the Senate chamber and nothing turns on when an officer is impeached.

The states are different because some state constitutions direct that an impeached officer is suspended pending trial. In that context, it matters when exactly an officer is impeached. Even so, states have not wrestled with this problem very much either. One exception was a Florida court during Reconstruction, which pointed to English and congressional practice as indicating that impeachment occurred when the House leveled an accusation in the Senate. As it noted, the early American constitutional treatise writer William Rawle had emphasized that impeachment is “a known definite term” inherited from England and meant “bring[ing] the charge before the other branch.” The early congressional practice reflected the proper understanding of the power to impeach as it was incorporated into the American constitutions.

But wait, there’s more. In 1923, the Oklahoma supreme court was asked to weigh in on when the acting governor assumed the duties of an impeached governor. The court concluded that the governor was impeached “when articles of impeachment are duly filed with the Senate and duly accepted and filed by the Senate.”

The Florida court had pointed to English and American practice as providing the proper definition that Florida institutions were bound to follow. The Oklahoma court, by contrast, pointed in part to the legislature’s own constitutional authority to define the term.

While the Constitution does not attempt to define the terms “impeachment,” nor the extent of its meaning, nor expressly authorize the Legislature to define its meaning, yet it nowhere prohibits the Legislature from defining the term and the extent of its meaning; hence, having given the Legislature exclusive jurisdiction in impeachment matters, and not having limited the Legislature in defining the term, it was a valid exercise of legislative authority for the Legislature to define what is meant by the term “impeachment” as used in the Constitution.

The legislature itself had said in a statute that impeachment “is the prosecution,” and the courts were bound by that interpretation. The court also offered a textualist rationale that to impeach means “to charge (a public officer), before a competent tribunal.” The legislature’s definition of impeachment was at least consistent with the weight of authority, according to the state court.

An interesting wrinkle here is that the Oklahoma court seems to suggest that, in the absence of a more specific definition in the constitutional text, the legislature itself had the authority to give concrete meaning to the term. The legislature had chosen to adopt the same understanding that seemed to be regnant in Congress and the states until the early twentieth century—impeachment occurred when the accusation was presented to the upper chamber. But the court seems to have left the door open to the legislature to adopt a different understanding of the meaning of “impeachment,” as Congress seemed to do starting with the impeachment of Judge Robert Archbald in 1912.

All of which raises the interesting question of whether “impeachment” has a fixed meaning as a matter of originalist constitutional interpretation or whether we are in the “construction zone.”

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Trump creates the US Space Force to prioritize orbital security

In signing a military spending bill Friday, President Donald Trump achieved a long-held goal of his administration: expanding the military to include a newly created Space Force.

The 2020 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) increases total military spending by about $20 billion, or 2.8 percent. It increases troop pay by 3.1 percent, includes $658.4 billion for Defense Department and Department of Energy national security programs, and also puts $71.5 billion towards ongoing foreign wars. But perhaps the most attention grabbing provision of the bill was creation of the Space Force.

After pushback from top military brass over the last two years, and two failed attempts to create the force in previous years’ NDAAs, the Space Force will now become the sixth branch of the US armed services. It is the first new service since the creation of the Air Force in 1947.

The Space Force won’t be built up from the ground up, however; instead, it was created largely by reshuffling the military’s organizational chart.

It will function as a part of the Air Force, supporting the newly promoted US Space Command, and will ultimately be overseen by the secretary fo the Air Force, according to military officials. However, the day-to-day operations of the Space Force will be handled by a chief of space operations who will have a seat on the nation’s top body of military advisers, the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Trump wasted little time filling the spot Friday.

“With today’s signing I will proudly appoint Gen. Jay Raymond the first chief of space operations and he will become the very first member of the Space Force and he will be on the Joint Chiefs,” Trump said during the signing ceremony for the 2020 NDAA. Raymond is the current head of US Space Command.

Trump has long made the case for a Space Force, saying in March that the US needed a new branch of the military “like the Army and the Navy, but for space, because we’re spending a lot of money on space.”

The Space Force that has emerged isn’t quite the what the president envisioned (a “separate but equal” service that operated completely independently of the Air Force), but it does represent a success for the president in a week that saw both his impeachment and the passing of his much-hyped North American trade deal in the House.

The Space Force will be the military’s smallest branch

The idea for a military branch focusing on space security came as a reaction to rival nations like Russia and China investing in their orbital presence, including their attempts to develop missile systems capable of shooting down military satellites. And as Vox’s Alex Ward has reported, China already has a section of its service roughly analogous to the Space Force: the Strategic Support Force, which “is meant to streamline and improve its space, cyber, and electronic warfare missions.”

“What was once peaceful and uncontested is now crowded and adversarial,” Vice President Mike Pence said in an August 2018 address at the Pentagon announcing initial plans for the force. “It’s not enough to merely have an American presence in space, we must have American dominance in space. And so we will.”

Brining that vision to pass has not been easy for the Trump administration.

The executive branch does not have the power to unilaterally create new branches of the military; the Constitution gives Congress the sole power “to raise and support armies. And as Ward has reported, the White House faced a military that was not in favor of a Space Force — a former Navy secretary said it was “a solution in search of a problem,” and then-Air Force Secretary Heather Wilson told reporters last summer: “The Pentagon is complicated enough. This will make it more complex, add more boxes to the organization chart.”

In a sort of compromise, rather than delivering on the administration’s initial grandiose vision for space dominance, Congress attempted to answer both the White House and Pentagon’s concerns.

“Part of the argument for Space Force was that space was kind of getting lost within the Air Force, with its focus on air dominance,” Kaitlyn Johnson, an associate fellow and associate director of the Aerospace Security Project at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, told The Verge.

The Space Force, then, will focus just on space — and on countering Russia and China there — as the Trump administration wanted. But, in response to military concerns, it will not add a completely new structure to the Pentagon, housed as it is in the Air Force. (Its leaders will, however, have the authority to make operational and training decisions without consulting the Air Force.)

Beyond the creation of a chief of space operations, the Space Force will give the military a few other new top-level officials, most notably, assistant secretaries dedicated to developing new technologies and creating strategies for orbital warfare.

Overall, the core mission of the Space Force will be to support the needs of US Space Command, as The Verge’s Loren Grush has explained:

The function of Space Command, or USSPACECOM, differs from Space Force. As a unified combatant command, USSPACECOM is responsible for space warfighting. The organization decides how to utilize the domain of space in the best interests of national security, whether that’s providing space-based communications capabilities for troops overseas or surveilling certain portions of the globe. The Space Force, on the other hand, is responsible for “operating, training, and equipping” all of the space assets that USSPACECOM needs. That entails acquiring the right surveillance or communications satellites, getting them into space, and training people to operate those vehicles.

To meet those needs, the roughly 16,000 active duty airmen and civilians currently serving in Space Command will be assigned to the Space Force, according to Gen. Raymond.

“The law states that Air Force Space Command will be redesignated the United States Space Force, that will happen immediately,” Raymond said to reporters at the Pentagon Friday.

Uniforms, logos, and songs are still under development Raymond said, who stressed their importance to creating a unique culture for the branch.

The NDAA went well beyond creating the Space Force

Because the annual NDAA is considered a “must pass” bill, it has become a key landing spot for other legislative priorities besides military spending. Chief among them this year was giving all 2.1 million federal employees paid family leave for the first time.

The United States is the only industrialized nation in the world without paid family leave for its workers, but — thanks to the NDAA — the federal government, the largest employer in the US, will now offer 12 weeks paid leave to any employee for the birth or adoption of a child. Previously, employees were allowed unpaid time off under the Family and Medical Leave Act, which Congress passed in 1993.

While limited to federal employees and not including time off to care for sick family members, lawmakers hope that the bill will influence private employers to match the paid family leave policy, as explained by Vox’s Li Zhou:

The effects of this new policy — despite its limitations — are significant: paid leave has been found to improve women’s workforce retention, children’s health outcomes, and parents’ ability to bond with their children. Growing access to paid leave for federal workers is a massive adjustment in benefits — and it’s one that could also put pressure on the private sector to offer the same if companies aren’t already doing so.

“Not only does it mean that federal employees will get what they’re entitled to, the federal government is a pacesetter,” Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer told the Associated Press. “If you work for a private company, this means the pressure on your employer will be much greater to give you parental leave as well when the blessed event of a child comes around, or god forbid your child is really sick and needs serious care.”

Presently, eight states and the District of Columbia have set up their own paid leave programs, all of which vary as there is no central federal policy that governs all workers. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, just 16 percent of workers in the private industry had access to paid family leave in 2018.

Among other provisions, the NDAA includes language that Congress “unequivocally supports” the residents of Hong Kong who have been engaged in months-long protests against the Chinese government. The bill drew criticism from left-leaning and libertarian lawmakers alike for not including provisions that would have restrained Trump’s ability to make war on Iran or a ban on support for Saudi Arabia’s air war on Yemen. Additionally, the bill allows Trump to use military funds to build a wall on the Mexican border.

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Graham: Pelosi’s the One Who’s Putting Her Job Above the Good of the Country

Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Lindsey Graham (R-S.C.) (Photo by MANDEL NGAN/AFP via Getty Images)

(CNSNews.com) – Sen. Lindsey Graham (R-S.C.), the chairman of the Judiciary Committee, said on Wednesday that personal political considerations prompted House Speaker Nancy Pelosi to join the Democrats’ push for impeachment.

Of course, that’s what Democrats say about Trump: that he put personal political considerations above the good of the country.

Why are Democrats rushing to impeach Trump? Graham wondered. He answered his own question:

The reason they are doing it is Nancy Pelosi would lose her job if they did not move towards impeachment.

What happened between March and now? In March, we needed to be thoughtful and bipartisan. Impeachment should be a grave decision made in a bipartisan manner. What happened?

The mob took over the House. The mob is running the Democratic Party. And if she did not move to impeach this president, she would not be Speaker. So she picked her job over what’s good for the country, and I hope at the end of the day it costs the Democrats the House, and it’s going to do a lot to reelect the president.

Their goal to destroy the president is actually going to blow up in their face. They’re going to make it more likely that he gets four more years. And can you imagine what the judiciary would look like with four more years of Donald Trump?

House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R-Calif.) told Hannity Wednesday night that as a result of impeachment, “The Democratic conference is smaller and we are stronger. And that’s a difference going in, 11 months from now, into an election.

“The president is still president today. He’ll be president tomorrow, and he’s going to be president after 2020 when he gets reelected.”

 

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Beacon Extra 12/20/19

Welcome to the Washington Free Beacon’s morning newsletter, your comprehensive briefing on the Enemies of Freedom. To get this newsletter sent straight to your inbox every morning, sign up here.

STRATEGERY …Trump Impeachment Trial in Doubt as Democrats Weigh Withholding Articles,” via NYT: In comments that underscored the risks [House Speaker Nancy] Pelosi faces in withholding the articles, [Senate majority leader Mitch] McConnell effectively argued that the delay reflected a weak case against Mr. Trump, a blink by the Democrats in their standoff with the president …

David Rutz breaks down the most important news about the enemies of freedom, here and around the world, in this comprehensive morning newsletter.

Sign up here and stay informed!

[Senator Lindsey] Graham, who is the chairman of the Judiciary Committee, said he spoke Thursday morning with Mr. Trump, who asked him, “What’s happening?”

“He’s puzzled,” Mr. Graham said. “I tried the best I could to explain it. I’m puzzled, too.”

POTUS WELCOMES DEFECTOR WITH OPEN ARMS …Trump welcomes Rep. Van Drew, an impeachment foe switching parties to join GOP,” via WAPO: Rep. Jeff Van Drew of New Jersey, who emerged in recent weeks as an anti-impeachment Democrat, switched parties Thursday to join the GOP, one day after he opposed both articles of impeachment against President Trump—and following weeks of courting by the president, allies of the president, and administration officials …

The announcement is one of the White House’s first acts of political combat following Wednesday’s impeachment vote, with the intent of casting the Democratic Party as consumed with investigating the president and inhospitable to moderates.

SHARPTON GROUP CHANNELS HYMIETOWN ROOTS … Sharpton-Led Group Backs Jersey City Official Who Said Jews Are to Blame for Anti-Semitic Attack,” by WFB’s Adam Kredo: Al Sharpton’s National Action Network has come to the defense of a Jersey City elected official facing pressure to resign over her anti-Semitic comments regarding a recent attack on a kosher market in the city.

While officials from across the Jersey City community have called on Joan Terrell to resign from public office over a social media comment blaming Jews for an anti-Semitic shooting, a local member of Sharpton’s National Action Network said Terrell’s critics should “shut their mouths,” according to a report by NJ.com.

THIS RESISTANCE IS ARMED … ‘Like a Freight Train’: 9 Out of 10 Virginia Counties Declare Themselves 2nd Amendment Sanctuaries,” by WFB’s Stephen Gutowski: The grassroots push for Virginia counties to say they won’t enforce gun bans even if passed by the state legislature is spreading “like a freight train,” with nearly 9 out of 10 counties in the state declaring themselves “Second Amendment sanctuaries” and thousands of people expected to show up for a pro-gun rally in the state capital next month.

“It’s been like a freight train,” said Philip Van Cleave, whose Virginia Citizens Defense League (VCDL) has helped organize the sanctuary movement. “It started moving and it’s moving under its own weight at this point. It’s amazing.”

SEND THE BOMBERS … Pompeo Vows to Stand Beside Iranian Protesters Seeking to Topple Hardline Regime,” by WFB’s Adam Kredo: In one of the clearest signs to date that the Trump administration is moving toward support for regime change in Iran, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo threw the weight of the administration behind a growing protest movement in the Islamic Republic that is now threatening to topple the theocratic ruling regime.

Pompeo said at the State Department on Thursday that the Trump administration stands shoulder-to-shoulder with Iranian demonstrators who have taken to the streets amid a bloody crackdown by the regime that has already killed more than 1,000 people.

FOR SOME, RESISTANCE NETWORK STILL NOT CRAZY ENOUGH …MSNBC’s Biggest Election Year Fight May Be With the Left,” via THR: “Some members of the public are under the mistaken impression that MSNBC is the progressive counter to Fox News, which couldn’t be further from the truth,” says Adam Green, co-founder of the Progressive Change Campaign Committee. “It’s not a progressive perspective. It’s an establishment perspective.” … 

For MSNBC’s sake, progressive activists are urging the network to course-correct and tap into party energy on the left before it’s too late. [Cenk] Uygur notes, “If throughout this election cycle they never have progressives on, there’s no way to undo that damage.”

STILL SMITTEN … UPDATE: CNN Reporter Who Worships Democrats Writes Puff Piece on Pelosi’s ‘Power’,” by WFB’s Andrew Stiles: [House Speaker Nancy] Pelosi’s “power” is referenced throughout the piece. She is “the most powerful woman in the country.” Her decision to delay sending the articles of impeachment to the Senate to initiate a trial was “an extraordinary and unprecedented power move.” The speaker has “forged a new image of the woman in power in the age of Trump,” while becoming “a force in her own right determined to rise above the fray.”

President Trump remains a “clear threat to Pelosi’s power,” but the clash of personalities “appears to be a draw,” despite the contrasting styles—Trump’s “outrage” versus Pelosi’s “restrained sorrow.”

HARRY POTTER AND THE MYSTERY OF THE MAGICAL GENITALIA … J.K. Rowling’s latest tweet seems like transphobic BS. Her fans are heartbroken.,” via VOX: Eagle-eyed Harry Potter fans have spent several years voicing their growing concerns that their hero, author J.K. Rowling, might be transphobic …

In addition to this long, problematic history, trans fans have spent several years pointing out that, for a while now, Rowling seems to have been subtly sending what might best be described as transphobic dog whistles.

NANNY STATE BIPARTISANSHIP …The Legal Smoking Age In The US Is Changing To 21,” via BUZZFEED: The legal age in the United States to smoke will rise to 21 next year, according to a new law passed by Congress on Thursday. The age increase will cover cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and all other tobacco products.

President Donald Trump voiced support for the change in November and is expected to sign the bill in the coming days, part of a larger spending bill that will prevent a federal government shutdown.

SURVIVE AND ADVANCE …How Trump Won 2019,” by WFB’s Matthew Continetti: He also has made the most of his adversaries’ weaknesses: not just the character traits he turns into nicknames but the zealotry that manifests itself in overreach and radicalism … 

President Trump heads to Mar-a-Lago impeached but defiant, with a new NAFTA and a “Phase One” China deal, 185 federal judges, the lowest unemployment in half a century, a stock market that has increased by 50 percent since Election Day 2016, a unified party, and an opposition barreling toward a confusing and bruising primary. Trump won 2019, but this is the preseason. The real game begins in 2020.

DAYS SINCE JOE BIDEN DID A SUNDAY SHOW: 1,104. Come back, Joe!

You know who really doesn’t have it? Joe Biden.” —Former President Barack Obama

Thanks for reading! Send tips to rutz@freebeacon.com.

David Rutz is senior writer at the Washington Free Beacon. He was previously a sports reporter for two years in Atlanta and has done freelance sports reporting for the Washington Post. He graduated from Vanderbilt University in 2010 and lives in Marietta, Ga. His Twitter handle is @DavidRutz.

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Joe Biden’s press secretary diagnosed with metastatic lung cancer

Joe Biden’s national press secretary, TJ Ducklo, announced on Saturday that he has been diagnosed with metastatic lung cancer, but said he will continue to work through the rest of the 2020 presidential campaign.

Ducklo shared a series of tweets explaining why he has been absent from the campaign trail as of late and said he will be starting his treatment on Monday.

“Some upsetting news to share & explanation for why I’ve been MIA recently: after a bunch of tests, I’ve been diagnosed [with] metastatic lung cancer. Which sucks a lot. I’m starting treatment Monday, & my doctors — who have been incredible — believe we can get this into remission,” he said.

“The outpouring of support and encouragement I’ve already received from family, colleagues and friends has been overwhelming in the best way, and has already made me feel like I have an army behind me to fight this piece of shit disease,” he continued.

JOE BIDEN PROMISES TO ‘CURE CANCER’ IF ELECTED PRESIDENT

“It was never a question whether I’d continue working during treatment — working for Joe Biden and this campaign has been the best, most important experience of my life,” Ducklo added.

Biden sent a message of support to Ducklo on Saturday and said he and his entire family would be there for support, to help him with whatever he needed.

“TJ: Stay strong. Me, Jill, and the whole Biden family are with you,” the former vice president wrote. “Not just in spirit — for anything. You have the right attitude. You are going to beat this and when you do, we are going to be there to celebrate. Love you, and we’re here with you.”

BEAU BIDEN, SON OF VICE PRESIDENT JOE BIDEN, DIES OF BRAIN CANCER

Ducklo thanked Biden for the encouragement and said he looks forward to helping him cure the disease after they win in 2020.

“Thank you, sir. Having you and @TeamJoe behind me makes me feel like I have superpowers. And when you’re president, we’ll cure this horrible disease for good. Xoxo,” he replied.

CLICK HERE TO GET THE FOX NEWS APP

In 2015, Biden lost his son Beau to brain cancer after he developed a glioblastoma. Beau was 46-years-old.

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Warrencare Doesn’t Deserve to Be Called “Medicare for All”

If you asked me to create a schematic for the health care plans proposed by Bernie Sanders, Elizabeth Warren, and Pete Buttigieg, it would probably look something like this:

In case you missed it — Warrencare and Petecare are, as proposed, structurally identical. Both are split into two phases. In phase one of both plans, the president passes a public option. Then, in phase two of both plans, private insurance potentially goes away, though in both plans phase two is entirely contingent — in Warrencare on passing a second bill, and in Petecare on the withering away of private markets.

Medicare for All, meanwhile, has a completely different structure: it combines the public option and the abolition of private insurance into a single bill. To put it another way, Medicare for All has no contingent phase two.

Bizarrely, however, this extremely simple and intuitive approach is not how we have been talking about the candidates’ health care plans. Instead, our discourse has come to describe them essentially like this:

Confusingly, pundits are using the same name (Medicare for All) to refer to both Medicare for All and Warrencare. And they routinely conflate these plans (saying things like, “Sanders and Warren both support Medicare for All”), even though they are quite different. To confuse matters even more, they often talk about Petecare as if it is a markedly different plan, when in fact it is structured identically to Warren’s.

It is no mystery, of course, why we’ve ended up in this conceptual mess. For much of the past year, Elizabeth Warren insisted that she supported “Bernie’s plan,” which everyone has always described as Medicare for All. And understandably, everyone drew a sharp contrast between Medicare for All and so-called public option plans, insisting that there is a major difference between a plan that destroys private insurance and one that kicks that can down the road. But then, Warren released Warrencare — which would have been called a “public option” plan had anyone else released it — while insisting that it was still somehow Medicare for All.

Oh, and by the way — this semantic mess aligns directly with messaging that opponents of single payer have been advancing for years. Funny how that works.

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Lie of the Year 2019: Donald Trump’s claim whistleblower got Ukraine call ‘almost completely wrong’

President Donald Trump started the morning of Sept. 20 dismissing headlines about someone who blew the whistle on a phone call he had with the president of Ukraine. The call, he tweeted, was “pitch perfect.”

Later that morning, Trump and first lady Melania opened the White House for a day of ceremony with Australia’s prime minister and his wife. Before their dinner of sunchoke ravioli and Dover sole, the four sat in the Oval Office as reporters asked Trump about the whistleblower’s account.

“It’s a ridiculous story. It’s a partisan whistleblower,” Trump said, though he added he didn’t know who it was and hadn’t read the complaint. 

Since the Sept. 26 release of the whistleblower complaint about his call with Ukraine President Volodymyr Zelensky, Trump has insisted more than 80 times that the whistleblower’s account is fake, fraudulent, incorrect, “total fiction,” “made up,” and “sooo wrong.” 

On Oct. 5 he tweeted that the “second hand information ‘Whistleblower’ got my phone conversation almost completely wrong.”

“Everything he wrote in that report, almost, was a lie,” Trump told reporters Nov. 8.

“The whistleblower defrauded our country, because the whistleblower wrote something that was totally untrue,” he said to the approval of supporters at a rally Dec. 10 in Hershey, Pa.

Despite what Trump claims, the whistleblower got the call “almost completely” right.

RELATED: 10 things Donald Trump got wrong about impeachment in 2019, fact-checked

We know this from the very record of the call the president released. We know this from testimony under oath from career diplomats and other officials. And the president and his allies have told reporters that Trump did what the whistleblower suggested — urged the Ukrainian president to investigate political rival Joe Biden. Their argument is that there was nothing inappropriate or unreasonable about it. Trump on Oct. 3 asked China to look at Biden and his son, Hunter, too.

Every year, PolitiFact editors review the year’s most flagrant inaccuracies in search of a significant false claim that can be elevated to Lie of the Year. 

The distinction is awarded to a statement that is more than ridiculous and wrong. The Lie of the Year — the only time PolitiFact uses the word “lie” — speaks to a falsehood that proves to be of real consequence and gets repeated in a virtual campaign to undermine an accurate narrative.

The whistleblower, who to Trump’s consternation remains unidentified, raised the concern that the president’s actions leading up to and on that phone call amount to interference in the coming presidential election. Agree or disagree with the conclusion, or whether the president’s conduct warrants impeachment, the actions described in the complaint stand up to factual scrutiny.

The claim that the whistleblower got his phone call “almost completely wrong” is PolitiFact’s 2019 Lie of the Year.

At the heart of the whistleblower complaint: an historic phone call

The whistleblower filed the now famous complaint on Aug. 12. It is nine pages long. The description of a July 25 phone call between Trump and Zelensky takes up two pages. That section is the backbone (though not the entirety) of the impeachment inquiry of the president.

Trump started the call after 9 a.m. from the residence of the White House. The purpose for the leaders’ phone call, as suggested by the National Security Council, was for Trump to congratulate Zelensky on his political party winning control of Ukraine’s parliament.

The call started with pleasantries and lasted half an hour. The whistleblower was not listening in but cited “multiple White House officials with direct knowledge of the call.” The complaint says Trump “pressured” Zelensky to:

• investigate Biden and his son, Hunter Biden;

• look into allegations that interference in the 2016 election, attributed to Russia, originated with Ukraine and a Democratic server; and,

• speak with Rudy Giuliani and Attorney General William Barr about those issues.

The day before the whistleblower’s complaint was public, the White House released a memo about the conversation that serves as a rough transcript of the call. Over the ensuing 80 days, the nation has watched Trump and his allies dispute the meaning of the core concerns, even as three officials who were listening have confirmed and elaborated on what was said in congressional testimony.

Those officials are Lt. Col. Alexander Vindman of the National Security Council; Jennifer Williams, adviser on Russia and Europe for Vice President Mike Pence; and Tim Morrison, who resigned his post as the top Russia expert on the National Security Council in October.

Investigate Biden and his son, Hunter Biden

While Joe Biden was vice president, his son, Hunter, accepted a directorship on the board of Ukrainian energy company Burisma Holdings.

The whistleblower said Trump wanted Zelensky to “initiate or continue an investigation into the activities of former Vice President Joseph Biden and his son, Hunter Biden.” 

Confirmed. Page 4 of the White House partial transcript quotes Trump as saying, “The other thing, there’s a lot of talk about Biden’s son, that Biden stopped the prosecution and a lot of people want to find out about that so whatever you can do with the Attorney General would be great. Biden went around bragging that he stopped the prosecution so if you can look into it… It sounds horrible to me.” 

 

The readout is supported by firsthand accounts of officials listening from the Situation Room. Vindman told House members he was concerned by the request of a foreign government to scrutinize a U.S. citizen. 

“I realized that if Ukraine pursued an investigation into the Bidens and Burisma, it would likely be interpreted as a partisan play, which would undoubtedly result in Ukraine losing the bipartisan support it has thus far maintained,” he said in his deposition before the House Intelligence Committee on Oct. 29. “This would all undermine U.S. national security.”

Both Vindman, the security council’s top expert on Ukraine, and Williams said their notes show Zelensky brought up “Burisma” by name, even though it does not appear in the call record. 

RELATED: Fact-checking Joe Biden, Hunter Biden, and Ukraine

Investigate Ukrainian interference

The whistleblower claimed Trump urged Zelensky to “assist in purportedly uncovering that allegations of Russian interference in the 2016 U.S. presidential election originated in Ukraine, with a specific request that the Ukrainian leader locate and turn over servers used by the Democratic National Committee (DNC) and examined by the U.S. cyber security firm Crowdstrike, which initially reported that Russian hackers had penetrated the DNC’s networks in 2016.”

This is confirmed on page 3 of the White House call record. It quotes Trump as saying, “I would like you to do us a favor though because our country has been through a lot and Ukraine knows a lot about it. I would like you to find out what happened with this whole situation, they say Crowdstrike… I guess you have one of your wealthy people… The server, they say Ukraine has it. There are a lot of things that went on, the whole situation. I think you’re surrounding yourself with some of the same people. I would like to have the Attorney General call you or your people and I would like you to get to the bottom of it. As you saw yesterday, that whole nonsense ended with a very poor performance by a man named Robert Mueller, an incompetent performance, but they say a lot of it started with Ukraine. Whatever you can do, it’s very important that you do it if that’s possible.”

 

The officials who testified confirmed this, too. 

To Williams, the CrowdStrike reference was “noteworthy” because she had never heard of it before.

To others, it was a red flag. The president was raising a theory that had been discredited.

Morrison, Vindman’s former boss, testified that hearing Trump’s mention a server reminded him that his predecessor at the National Security Council, Fiona Hill, had warned him to stay away from those pushing for investigations of the Bidens and a server. Hill later testified that theories about Ukraine election interference were a “fictional narrative that has been perpetrated and propagated by the Russian security services themselves.”

RELATED: Trump mentioned the ‘Crowdstrike’ conspiracy during his call with Ukraine. Here’s what that means

Speak with Rudy Giuliani, William Barr

The whistleblower said Trump told Zelensky to “meet or speak with two people the President named explicitly as his personal envoys on these matters, Mr. Giuliani and Attorney General Barr, to whom the President referred multiple times in tandem.”

Trump dropped their names multiple times, and with particular endorsement for meeting with Giuliani. This from the White House’s transcript: “Mr. Giuliani is a highly respected man. He was the mayor of New York City, a great mayor, and I would like him to call you. I will ask him to call you along with the Attorney General. Rudy very much knows what’s happening and he is a very capable guy. If you could speak to him that would be great.” 

 

The rest of the complaint details events that came before the call and some that followed, concluding with a brief mention of a sudden hold on military aid to Ukraine. The hold had “come directly from the President,” and White House budget staff didn’t know why.

That would become central to the Democrats’ impeachment inquiry. 

Facts are facts. Politics are politics

Where the complaint and the president veer apart is on what the events mean.  The whistleblower writes: Trump “is using the power of his office to solicit interference from a foreign country in the 2020 U.S. election.” That’s also how House Democrats have framed it in the first article of impeachment. 

Republicans dispute that interpretation of Trump’s call. They point out that there is no explicit mention of either 2020 or the re-election campaign in the White House summary of the Trump-Zelensky call. They say the whistleblower made a sensational leap in word choice (none more so than “Trump pressured”) that unfairly shaped media coverage of Trump’s handling of Ukraine.

Given the history of corruption in Ukraine and Hunter Biden’s involvement there, Trump asking about it was legitimate. 

Said Vindman in his deposition: “I guess, look, it doesn’t take a rocket scientist to see where the gain would be for the president in investigating the son of a political opponent.”

This month Trump and Republicans have expanded their argument that the president’s language on the call has been mischaracterized.

RELATED: See the previous 10 Lies of the Year 

“When I said, in my phone call to the President of Ukraine, ‘I would like you to do US a favor though because our country has been through a lot and Ukraine knows a lot about it.’ With the word ‘us’ I am referring to the United States, our Country,” Trump tweeted Dec. 4.

Trump has not let up on his attacks of the whistleblower, asking repeatedly about the person’s whereabouts and saying he wants to uncover the identities of those who spoke with the person. Trump says he deserves the right to question his accuser.

“I wouldn’t mind a long process, because I’d like to see the whistleblower, who’s a fraud,” he said Dec. 13 of a Senate impeachment trial.

U.S. Rep. Val Demings, a Florida Democrat on the House Intelligence and Judiciary committees, questioned the value of the whistleblower’s testimony at this point.

“It’s a very strange thing that’s going on here right now,” Demings said. “The whistleblower complaint has been corroborated multiple, multiple, multiple times.”

Do the motivations of the complaint matter? 

“The whistleblower can have the worst possible motives in the world. The whistleblower can hate their boss. And the law doesn’t really take that into account,” said Dan Meyer, an attorney who was executive director for Intelligence Community Whistleblowing and Source Protection from 2013 to 2017.

No matter the motivations or the political outcome, testimony from the whistleblower would not change the underlying facts of what Trump said. The whistleblower’s account is verified by the same set of facts supplied by Vindman, Williams and Morrison, and others who were in the know.

And one more source: Trump.

RELATED: PolitiFact’s Trump-Ukraine-Biden coverage in one place

Posted on

Unfit To Print Episode 35: WaPo Reporters Appear To Celebrate Impeachment

President Donald Trump was impeached by the Democratic-led House of Representatives this week, and the media couldn’t get enough.

Some gloated about how there would forever be an “asterisk” next to the president’s name, while a group of Washington Post reporters enjoyed their “Merry Impeachmas” with pints of Guinness and spinach and artichoke dip. (RELATED: ‘Merry Impeachmas’ — Washington Post Reporters Appear To Celebrate Impeachment)

LISTEN:

CNN’s Brian Stelter got upset at Supreme Court Justice Neil Gorsuch for promoting his book on “partisan” “Fox & Friends,” apparently forgetting that several liberal justices have promoted their own books on Stephen Colbert’s late night show. Double standards!

LISTEN:

Businessman Andrew Yang gave a refreshing answer about impeachment during Thursday night’s Democratic debate, ripping the media for its obsessive coverage of Russiagate and Ukraine instead of focusing on the issues that the American people care about.

WATCH: 

Thanks for watching and check out past episodes:

Unfit To Print Episode 34: IG Report Debunks Media’s Biggest Lies

Unfit To Print Episode 33: CNN Hits 3-Year Ratings Low Amid Impeachment Drama

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Democrats in disarray: 2020 election at risk

The Democrats are in disarray and face a number of problems winning the 2020 election. For starters, the Democratic presidential nomination process is highly fluid. In early primary and caucus states, no candidate has managed to sustain a lead over time. The criteria for qualifying for a debate slot and the debates themselves have hurt candidates and party. The most moderate voices and lesser funded candidates do not qualify for the debate stage.  

At the debates, the media panelists goad candidates to attack each other. They dig up long forgotten or controversial comments and challenge candidates to defend themselves. Candidates, to win attention, outdo each other in moving to the left or in making bold declarations on controversial issues such as “Medicare for All.”

Former Vice President Joe BidenJoe BidenClaire McCaskill: Young girls ‘are now aspiring’ to be like Warren, Klobuchar after debate Booker releases list of campaign bundlers Yang campaign raises 0K since debate MORE, the initial front runner, has been an embarrassment. He is not a good debater, is inarticulate, seems to be confused and out of touch, and makes numerous gaffes.    

Sen. Elizabeth WarrenElizabeth Ann WarrenClaire McCaskill: Young girls ‘are now aspiring’ to be like Warren, Klobuchar after debate Booker releases list of campaign bundlers Klobuchar raises more than M in online donations since debate MORE (D-Mass.) and Sen. Bernie SandersBernie SandersClaire McCaskill: Young girls ‘are now aspiring’ to be like Warren, Klobuchar after debate Booker releases list of campaign bundlers Klobuchar raises more than M in online donations since debate MORE (I-Vt.) have staked out far left positions and have minimal support outside of progressive Democrats. South Bend, Ind., Mayor Pete ButtigiegPeter (Pete) Paul ButtigiegClaire McCaskill: Young girls ‘are now aspiring’ to be like Warren, Klobuchar after debate Booker releases list of campaign bundlers Klobuchar raises more than M in online donations since debate MORE has limited recognition and support among blue collar and minority Democratic voting blocks.

Former New York City Mayor Mike Bloomberg, noting the disarray in the Democratic field, has entered the contest. He wisely refuses to get sucked into the early primary and caucus battles. He is actively campaigning, counting on doing well in the early March “Super Tuesday” primaries where one-third of the convention delegates are at stake. 

The Democrats should be wary of the Jeremy Corbyn/Labour Party effect: A Socialist-focused agenda and failure to confront Anti-Semitism in the party is a losing strategy.

Another problem Democratic candidates face is the impeachment process. Impeachment has become a partisan political brawl. It has not gained support among Republican voters, who are strongly opposed, or among independent voters, who are evenly divided on its appropriateness. Recent Politico/Morning Consult polling shows overall support for impeachment barely breaking the 50 percent range. Further, polls of voters in battleground states revealed impeachment unpopular there. 

Without broad-based support, impeachment will backfire on the Democrats. It will hurt their 2020 presidential election prospects. The Republican-controlled Senate will surely acquit.  Trump will claim vindication and victory and be in a better position to win the 2020 Electoral College vote. 

Many Democratic strategists are engaged in magical thinking. They seem to believe that “ascendant voters” — 18 to 24-year olds, millennials, younger single women, minorities, and people of color — will march en masse into the voting booth and support the Democratic presidential candidate. Past voting patterns do not support this scenario. “Ascendant voters” are fickle and are likely either not to vote at all or to support third party candidates. 

Most troubling for the Democrats is the abandonment of the non-college educated, blue collar working class, who have always been a faithful and key voting bloc. Many Democrats disparage their more traditional social and cultural outlook. Democrats lecture these voters about lifelong learning, STEM education, preparing for the new global economy, innovation, and entrepreneurship. This attitude, as illustrated by the 2016 Clinton candidacy, taints the party’s presidential prospects. It must be avoided by the current crop of candidates.   

Most Democrats have turned away from the concerns of working-class voters — loss of livable wage jobs to globalization and unfair trade arrangements. Instead, the candidates take on a global citizen perspective, playing into the Trump nationalist narrative. Biden, Sanders and Warren are courting union members with promises of wage increases for lower wage employees, not the creation or return of high wage employment.

Impeachment does not appear to be an effective tool for Democrats. The ascendant voters have not yet ascended in sufficient numbers. Candidates have not as yet appealed to the traditional working-class Democratic base. What are the Democrats to do?  

Whoever the nominee, he/she, needs to build a realistic winning coalition that includes the formerly dependable non-college educated blue collar voters. Also, they need to focus on winning key battleground states — Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire, Arizona, Florida, North Carolina.

This will entail a careful balance — a more moderate tone, an empathetic embrace of the working class, and a progressive agenda for those ascendant voters who do go to the polls. A Democratic victory is possible. But so far, it is not looking likely. The alternative: four more years of the Trump presidency.

Joshua Sandman, Ph.D., is a professor of political science at the University of New Haven. He has studied the presidency for more than five decades.